Kamis, 11 Oktober 2012

Operating a successful international business requires cross-cultural literacy (an understanding of how cultural differences across and within nations can affect the way in which business is practiced).
A relationship may exist between culture and the costs of doing business in a country or region.
The fundamental building blocks of culture are values (abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and desirable) and norms (the social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations). 
The term society refers to a group of people who share a common set of values and norms.
Value and Norms
          Values provide the context within which a society’s norms are established and justified and form the bedrock of a culture
          Norms are the social rules that govern the actions of people toward one another and can be further subdivided into folkways (the routine conventions of everyday life) and mores (norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society and to its social life)

Culture, Society, and the Nation-State
          A society can be defined as a group of people that share a common set of values and norms; that is, a group bound together by a common culture
The Determinants of Culture
          The values and norms of a culture are the evolutionary product of a number of factors at work in a society
Classroom Performance System
Abstract ideas about what a society believes to be good right and desirable are called
a)       Attitudes
b)       Norms
c)       Values
d)      Mores
A society's social structure is its basic social organization. 
Two dimensions to consider:
          the degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the individual, as opposed to the group
          the degree to which a society is stratified into classes or castes
Individuals and Groups
The Individual
          A focus on the individual, and individual achievement is common in many Western societies
          This contributes to the dynamism of the US economy, but can lead to a lack of company loyalty and failure to gain company specific knowledge, competition between individuals in a company rather than team building, and a limit on people's ability to develop a strong network of contacts within a firm
Social Stratification
          All societies are stratified on a hierarchical basis into social categories, or social strata
Social Mobility
          Social mobility is the extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they are born
          A caste system is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born, and change in that position is usually not possible during an individual's lifetime
          A class system is a form of open social stratification in which the position a person has by birth can be changed through his or her achievement or luck
          In cultures where there is a great deal of consciousness over the class of others, the way individuals from different classes work together (i.e. management and labor) may be very prescribed and strained in some cultures (i.e. Britain), or have almost no significance in others (i.e. Japan) 
          Class consciousness  is a condition where people tend to perceive themselves in terms of their class background, and this shapes their relationships with others
Classroom Performance System
The extent to which an individual can move out of the social strata into which they are born is called
a)       Social stratification
b)       Class mobility
c)       Social mobility
d)      Caste system
Religion is a system of shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of the sacred.  The religions with the greatest following are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.  Confucianism influences behavior and shapes culture in many parts of Asia. 
Ethical systems are a set of moral principles, or values, that are used to guide and shape behavior.  The ethical practices of individuals within a culture are often closely intertwined with their religion.
          Christianity is the largest religion and is common throughout Europe, the Americas, and other countries settled by Europeans
Economic Implications of Christianity:
The Protestant Work Ethic
          At the turn of the century Weber suggested that it was the Protestant work ethic (focus on hard work, wealth creation, and frugality) that was the driving force of capitalism 
Islam extends the underlying roots of Christianity to an all-embracing way of life that governs one's being.
Islamic Fundamentalism
          In the West, Islamic fundamentalism is associated in the media with militants, terrorists, and violent upheavals. However, the vast majority of Muslims point out that Islam teaches peace, justice, and tolerance. Fundamentalists have gained political power in many Muslim countries, and have tried to make Islamic law the law of the land.
Economic Implications of Islam
 In Islam, people do not own property, but only act as stewards for God and thus must take care of that which they have been entrusted with. While Islam is supportive of business, the way business is practiced is prescribed.
          Hinduism, practiced primarily on the Indian sub-continent, focuses on the importance of achieving spiritual growth and development, which may require material and physical self-denial
Economic Implications of Hinduism
          Since Hindus are valued by their spiritual rather than material achievements, there is not the same work ethic or focus on entrepreneurship found in some other religions
          Promotion and adding new responsibilities may not be the goal of an employee, or may be infeasible due to the employee's caste
         Buddhists stress spiritual growth and the afterlife, rather than achievement while in this world 
         Buddhism, practiced mainly in South East Asia, does not support the caste system, however, so individuals do have some mobility and can work with individuals from different classes
          Confucianism, practiced mainly in China, teaches the importance of attaining personal salvation through right action
          The need for high moral and ethical conduct and loyalty to others is central in Confucianism
Economic Implications of Confucianism
          Three key teachings of Confucianism - loyalty, reciprocal obligations, and honesty - may all lead to a lowering of the cost of doing business in Confucian societies 
Classroom Performance System
The religion with the largest following in the world is
a)       Christianity
b)       Islam
c)       Hinduism
d)      Buddhism
Language, both spoken and unspoken, is one of the defining characteristics of culture.
Spoken Language
          While English is the language of international business, knowledge of the local language is beneficial, and in some cases, critical for business success
Unspoken Language
          Unspoken language such as facial expressions and hand gestures can be  important for communication. However, because these can have different interpretations in different cultures, misunderstandings are common
         Formal education is the medium through which individuals learn many of the language, conceptual, and mathematical skills that are indispensable in a modern society.
         The knowledge base, training, and educational opportunities available to a country's citizens can also give it a competitive advantage in the market and make it a more or less attractive place for expanding business. 
How does a society's culture impact on the values found in the workplace? 
Geert Hofstede isolated four dimensions that he claimed summarized different cultures:
          Power Distance is focused on how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities
          Individualism Versus Collectivism is focused on the relationship between the individual and his or her fellows
          Uncertainty Avoidance measures the extent to which different cultures socialize their members into accepting ambiguous situations and tolerating ambiguity
          Masculinity Versus Femininity looks at the relationship between gender and work roles
Classroom Performance System
Which of Hofstede’s dimensions measures the extent to which different cultures socialize their members into accepting ambiguous situations and tolerating uncertainty?
a)       Individualism versus collectivism
b)       Uncertainty avoidance
c)       Masculinity versus femininity
d)      Power distance 
Culture evolves over time, although changes in value systems can be slow and painful for a society.  Social turmoil is an inevitable outcome of cultural change.
As countries become economically stronger, cultural change is particularly common.
Cross-Cultural Literacy
          Individuals and firms must develop cross-cultural literacy
          International businesses that are ill informed about the practices of another culture are unlikely to succeed in that culture
          Individuals must also beware of ethnocentric behavior, or a belief in the superiority of one's own culture 
Culture and Competitive Advantage
For international companies, the connection between culture and competitive advantage is important because:
          the connection suggests which countries are likely to produce the most viable competitors
          the connection between culture and competitive advantage has important implications for the choice of countries in which to locate production facilities and do business

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